Luciana Lupe Vasconcelos (via INK - Lupevision)
If you have ever taken a course or class in Psychology, then you know about Milgram’s studies on obedience. For those of you who have not heard of them, Stanley Milgram did a series of experiments in order to see what the relationship between obedience and authority was. In the experiments…
How Mandelbrot’s Fractals Changed The World
by Jack Challoner/BBC News
During the 1980s, people became familiar with fractals through those weird, colorful patterns made by computers. But few realize how the idea of fractals has revolutionized our understanding of the world, and how many fractal-based systems we depend upon.
Unfortunately, there is no definition of fractals that is both simple and accurate. Like so many things in modern science and mathematics, discussions of “fractal geometry” can quickly go over the heads of the non-mathematically-minded. This is a real shame, because there is profound beauty and power in the idea of fractals.
The best way to get a feeling for what fractals are is to consider some examples. Clouds, mountains, coastlines, cauliflowers and ferns are all natural fractals. These shapes have something in common - something intuitive, accessible and aesthetic.
They are all complicated and irregular: the sort of shape that mathematicians used to shy away from in favor of regular ones, like spheres, which they could tame with equations.
Mandelbrot famously wrote: “Clouds are not spheres, mountains are not cones, coastlines are not circles, and bark is not smooth, nor does lightning travel in a straight line.”
The chaos and irregularity of the world - Mandelbrot referred to it as “roughness” - is something to be celebrated. It would be a shame if clouds really were spheres, and mountains cones.
Look closely at a fractal, and you will find that the complexity is still present at a smaller scale. A small cloud is strikingly similar to the whole thing. A pine tree is composed of branches that are composed of branches - which in turn are composed of branches.
Fractal images © Laguna Design / Science Source
Mandelbrodt photo © Emilio Segrè / Science Source
Did you ever notice that sometimes when you’re with a group of people, and all of the sudden you are shun, maybe because you don’t know what the rest of the group was talking about or maybe you said and offensive joke, it actually really hurts? And I’m not talking about that metaphorical…
Go sit in the shame
theres a ghost on Flickr.
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